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Genotyping by Sequencing

We specialise in delivering high quality, consistent GBS data sets
to collaborators around the world.

PLOS One Open Access Peer Reviewed Research Article


GBS Paper Citations


Species Analysed

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What our collaborators say about us.

A selection of species we have worked with.

plant breeding, SNP Genotyping, Genotyping Services,Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) Analysis
Capsicum anuum


Horticulture Breeding

Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS), GBS Service, DNA Sequence Variation
Zea mays


Agriculture Breeding

Domestic chickens, Variant Calling, Genomic Profiling
Gallus gallus


Animal Breeding

SNP Discovery, High-Quality Genotyping
Impatiens capensis

Orange Jewelweed

Plant Ecology

Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) Analysis
Thinornis novaeseelandiae

Tūturuatu / Shore Plover

Avian Conservation Biology

Mammalian Genotyping, Easy to use, Cost Effective
Procavia capensis

Rock Hyrax

Mammalian Ecology

Genomic Data Analysis, Population Genetics Studies, Genetic Testing Services
Carum carvi


Orphan Crop Breeding

Insect genomics, SNP Discovery, Genomic Research Service
Tipulidae spp.


Insect Ecology

Aquatic Diversite, Mollusc, DNA Sequence Variation, Genotyping by Sequencing
Tridacna maxima

Cook Island Clam

Molluscan Ecology

What is Genotyping by Sequencing?

Genotyping-by-Sequencing (GBS) is a method for molecular marker discovery and genotyping which has enjoyed broad use in many areas of genomics research. GBS allows the simultaneous discovery and genotyping of thousands to millions of single nucleotide polymorphisms depending on the genetic diversity sampled. It was first developed to provide a low cost, high throughput genetic marker platform for plant breeding in corn.

That was just the beginning. In addition to agricultural applications, genotyping-by-sequencing has enabled the use of modern genomics tools for researchers in fields such as ecology and conservation biology. This system can be used without a reference genome and is ideal for non-model organisms. To see how you can work with the original developer to apply GBS to your research question, go to our services page.

How does it work?

GBS combines the data generation power of modern DNA sequencing with long used and well known molecular biology techniques in a streamlined method to generate many molecular markers. To take advantage of the huge amount of sequence data generated by modern sequencing and reduce the cost per sample, GBS uses an efficient DNA bar coding system which allows us to combine many samples for sequencing.

5 Main Steps

  1. Cut up the DNA into fragments in a predictable way using methylation sensitive restriction enzymes. One can think of these as very specialised molecular scissors.

  2. Attach specially designed DNA molecules (incorporating bar codes) to the cut DNA using DNA ligase. Ligase can be thought of as glue or sellotape.

  3. Make many, many copies of the DNA molecules using a DNA polymerase to make a library — much like a copy machine.

  4. Sequence the library thereby generating a large data set.

  5. Perform an analysis of the data comparing the sequences and looking for differences. These differences are genetic markers.